Alphabetical dictionaries where words are arranged in alphabetical order, monolingual dictionaries, with explanations in the target language (in one language only) and bilingual dictionaries which give translations in the mother tongue are the most frequent ones used in school. What might be more efficient for learning, bilingual or monolingual is discussed in the following part of this chapter. Previously to that, it is constructive to take a look at what kind of information a good dictionary should include: word, spelling, pronunciation, meaning, senses, grammar and word class, collocations, register, connotations and cultural information, related words and examples (McCarthy 2002, 11). In addition, it might be useful to incorporate compound information (. house – housework, housekeeper etc.). Dictionaries can also vary in size, number of languages included, purpose and target group. In this case, the purpose is acquiring a second language and the target group obviously is represented by teachers and learners.
Usage Note: Critique has been used as a verb meaning “to review or discuss critically” since the 18th century, but lately this usage has gained much wider currency, in part because the verb criticize, once neutral between praise and censure, is now mainly used in a negative sense. But this use of critique is still regarded by many as pretentious jargon, although resistance appears to be weakening. In our 1997 survey, 41 percent of the Usage Panel rejected the sentence As mock inquisitors grill him, top aides take notes and critique the answers with the President afterward. Ten years earlier, 69 percent disapproved of this same sentence. Resistance is still high when a person is critiqued: 60 percent of the Usage Panel rejects its use in the sentence Students are taught how to do a business plan and then are critiqued on it. Thus, it may be preferable to avoid this word as a verb. There is no exact synonym, but in most contexts one can usually substitute go over, review, or analyze. Note, however, that critique is widely accepted as a noun in a neutral context; 86 percent of the Panel approved of its use in the sentence The committee gave the report a thorough critique and found it both informed and intelligent.
Essay & Research Paper Level
Select from . . * Principles of Composition * Index THE WRITING PROCESS Writer's Block Freewriting Clustering Outlining A Sense of Purpose Tone Maintaining Objectivity Concrete, Specific Language Unbiased Language Building Your Vocabulary Avoiding Plagiarism Being Logical Formatting Papers Editing Process Computer as Writing Assistant Deadly Sins Checklist Proofreading Symbols STRUCTURAL CONSIDERATIONS The Thesis Statement Transitions Beginnings Conclusions The Five-Paragraph Essay PATTERNS OF ORGANIZATION Organizing Principles Mixing the Patterns The Personal Essay Narrative or Descriptive Describing a Process Comparison & Contrast Using Examples Classification / Analysis Developing a Definition Evaluative Essay (Review) Cause and Effect Argumentative Essay Writing about Literature Research Papers (mla-style) Research Papers (apa) Ask Grammar, Quizzes, Search Devices
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