Use of stem cell lines from alternative non-embryonic sources has received more attention in recent years and has already been demonstrated as a successful option for treatment of certain diseases. For example, adult stem cells can be used to replace blood-cell-forming cells killed during chemotherapy in bone marrow transplant patients. Biotech companies such as Revivicor and ACT are researching techniques for cellular reprogramming of adult cells, use of amniotic fluid, or stem cell extraction techniques that do not damage the embryo, that also provides alternatives for obtaining viable stem cell lines.
4. Role of hematopoietic stem cells in steady state hematopoiesis
It is remain not very clear if all blood cell types are developed from one hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in normal hematopoiesis, because of limitations of conventional transplantation models. In these models, host bone marrow severely damaged by lethal irradiation and donor cells can skew hematopoietic repopulation in toxic marrow environment. Recent studies, challenged significant contribution of HSCs in immune reconstitution. Results of very recent study, which used more appropriate model of steady state hematopoiesis, were published in Immunity .
Many types of stem cells are being explored for their potential benefits for treating multiple sclerosis. Only when the results of these and subsequent clinical trials are available will it be possible to determine what the optimal cells, delivery methods, safety and actual effectiveness of these current experimental therapies might be for people with MS.
Although cell based therapy has generated a great deal of interest and holds promise, the field is in its infancy and much more research is needed before cell based therapies become a MS treatment option.