On October 31, 2007, Newdow filed a similar lawsuit against the school system in Hanover, New Hampshire, this time on behalf of the Freedom From Religion Foundation and several local plaintiffs. Once again, the Knights of Columbus sought and received permission from the court to become defendant-intervenors. On September 30, 2009, . District Judge Steven McAuliffe ruled that the Pledge of Allegiance - including the words "under God” - did not violate the Constitution, and dismissed the case. Judge McAuliffe held that the Pledge "neither advances nor inhibits religion” and "does not foster excessive government involvement with religion.” It was, he said, "enacted to enhance instruction in the Nation’s history, and foster a sense of patriotism.” Newdow has appealed to the First Circuit.