As for the famous James ossuary first published in 2002, d whose inscription is translated “Jacob, son of Joseph, brother of Yeshua‘,” more smoothly rendered, “James, son of Joseph, brother of Jesus,” it is unprovenanced, and it will likely take decades to settle the matter of whether it is authentic. Following well established, sound methodology, I do not base conclusions on materials whose authenticity is uncertain, because they might be forged. 45 Therefore the James ossuary, which is treated in many other publications, is not included here. 46
Some kind of punctuation is often found in inscriptions of all kinds. In Greek inscriptions a vertical line or a dot, or dots, sometimes indicates the separation between sentences or words, but words are seldom separated by spaces as in modern printing, so that the text is continuous and no division of words is particularly the case with Greek inscriptions of the best period. In Roman inscriptions it was usual to separate the words by dots. In certain inscriptions a cross ( ) was used to indicate the beginning of an inscription, especially when its direction was erratic. Christian inscriptions sometimes begin with a cross, which doubtless had a symbolic meaning; and a leaf or other device was often placed at the end.
Should a title of a book be italicized when it is following a quoted paragraph from the book, for the purpose of introducing an article? In other words this is not running text nor is it a quotation set off within the text; rather, it appears as an extract before the beginning of the article. Following the extract is an en dash, the author’s last name, a comma, and then the book title. None of which are currently italicized. I don’t think the author’s name should be italicized, but should the book title? I can’t find a rule for this in my references. (And while I’m asking, should it be an en dash before the author’s name? or em dash?). Thanks for your help!